The legal framework for intellectual property is complex and at the same time strategic for an effective technology intelligence management. Most of conventions and treaties related with IP are coordinated by WIPO and accessible through its WIPO Lex tool. The objective is to regulate the scope of protection and territorial area. The most significant are:

  • Berne Convention: establishes an international path for protection of copyright on artistic and literary works. Includes the principle of National Treatment, according to which works originating in one of the Contracting States must be given the same protection in each of the other Contracting States.
  • Paris Union Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property: represents a milestone in the international industrial property regulation and establishes important principles such as, patents national treatment or the unionist priority benefit, by which the applicant from one of the member states will enjoy a priority right in the others states.
  • Budapest Treaty: establishes the international recognition for microorganism deposit in the patent procedure, as well as the creation of the International Depository Authorities.
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT): makes possible to start a patent application process in more than 150 states with one single application and establishes a common procedure for an international extension after its granted.
  • Munich Convention on the Grant of European Patents: establishes a common system of patent granting for European States. Furthermore, any citizen of the world can apply for patents within this Convention.
  • Madrid System: Regulates an international trademark registration system governed by the Madrid Agreement, which allows granting trademarks protection in various countries or regions with some requirements.
  • The Hague System: establishes an international registration system for industrial designs under the Hague Agreement, which allows protection in various countries or regions with a series of requirements.
  • Andean Community: common regulations on intellectual property rights. The member countries are Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.